Monday, August 19, 2019
Saint Gregory of Tours was born around the year 538 at Arverni, which is now Clermont-Ferrand. He belonged to the Gallo-Roman family, which was a very prestigious family. He was also related to the houses of Gaul. GregoryÃ¢â¬â¢s original name was Georgius Florentius. He took the name Gregory to honor his late grandfather who was named Gregory. His Grandfather was the Bishop of Langres. When Gregory was young, his father died and he went to live with his Uncle. His uncle, Gallus, was the Bishop of Clermont. Gallus educated him until his death in 554. GregoryÃ¢â¬â¢s mother left to live with friends in Burgandy and left her son to Avitus who became Bishop of Clermont after Gallus. Avitus taught Gregory all about the Scriptures. Gregory was not too impressed with the scriptures. Gregory got seriously ill and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t supposed to recover. He did recover though and this made him more mindful of God and the scriptures. Gregory then became a friend with the Bishop of Tours whose nam e was Euphronius. Euphronius died in 573 and Gregory succeeded him as Bishop of Tours. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During this time in Tours, there was great political and social chaos. The relationships with the Bishops and the Kings and Masters was not good. The Kings abused their powers and this caused civil wars. Gregory wrote that these conflicts were more hurtful to the church than the persecution from Diocletian. Eventually the unrest and Tours stopped and peace was at hand. The Masters of Tours were constantly changing until Guntram who was the King of Burgandy took over the rule of Tours. Guntram and Gregory were friends and the role of bishop was given more authority and respect. Guntram signed the Treaty of Andelot in the year 587. This treaty gave the rule of Tours to Childebert II. Childebert honored Gregory and let him go on many missions. During this time, Gregory played an important role in the building of new churches and restoring the cathedral in Tours. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gregory was also known for being a great historian. He wrote about the miracles of St. Martin (St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb is in Tours) and the history of the Frankish Empire. The history of the Frank was entitled Historia Francorum, It had ten books and started with creation and ended in the year 591.
In general, every country has two choices when it comes to getting women involved in politics; they can either encourage womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in politics or implement policies that require parties and parliament to have a certain proportion of women holding elected offices (Stokes, 2005: 78). The second option requires that the party adopts the gender quota system which is a number of seats reserved for women (Stokes, 2005:77). Ever since quotas have been adopted and diffused across nations, the proportion of women in national legislature has increased from the period of 1975 to 1995 (Caul; 2001:1214). This goes to show that the adoption of quota policies have facilitated womenÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance into politics. However, the road to adoption of the quotas policies has been influenced by several factors: political and societal (Caul; 2001), as well as partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ culture and characteristics (Stokes 2005, Chapter 1). The rationale behind using quota policies is that the more women are present in legislative politics, the more chances women will have the chance to influence policy (Lyn: 1994: 560). Lyn Kathlene examines womenÃ¢â¬â¢s presence and behaviours in a Colorado state in legislature hearing committees to test for their input in policy making and debates. The question that this paper seeks to answer if whether or not women get to influence policy making once in office, like advocates hoped for? We will see that to a certain extent it is possible to observe womenÃ¢â¬â¢s impact in the decision making process. Although other pressures such cultural, negative conversational dynamics between men and women are present it does not decrease the rate of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in political decision making process. Instead it exposes the negative response ... ... on issues that directly affect them such as family issues. Their presence in national legislature means that they were elected by the population, they not only acting on behalf of all women but also standing in these hearing committees as their duty as a delegate of those who have elected her. The grounds for their interventions are based on their ability to position themselves as women but also as an elected official. Being present at hearing debates, shows that their presence is aligned with their ability to influence policy, regardless of the times they get interrupted. MaleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviours towards women expose a reality that is more related to their characters and behaviours. The findings that we have looked do not show any connection maleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviours towards women in hearing debate that discourage them from participating and voicing their opinions in debates.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
It is evident that populations around the world are starkly staring at a food crisis that has picked momentum especially since 2008. This recent global food crisis has placed staple grains, the main sustenance for populations around the world, out of reach of the hundreds of millions of people in need of them. This has seen its effects being felt in both developed and developing countries (Magdoff, 2006: 1-7). This study will focus its attention on the explanation about this recent food crisis, how it reflects previous agri-food system tendencies and its relationship to diabetes, another food system problem. The thesis of this study is that the explanations behind the recent food crisis revolve around commercial (corporate-dependent) model of the global food system which makes food items vulnerable to market dynamics and hence out of reach for many individuals. This is relevant to the issue of food crisis since it attaches an economics perspective to the crisis which is especially s ignificant given the recent global economic meltdown. Theoretical Perspective A closer and detailed look at the recent food crisis reveals a number of patterns and insights that can be supported by theoretical perspectives to show that it is a consequence of the established food policy. First of all, the food crisis does not necessarily stem from low production since the advent of chemical and biological technology in food production makes the processes more optimized. Instead, it is due to shifting economic and political power throughout the stages of food production and distribution. Emphasis is being placed on food production and distribution in terms of where maximum profitability will be achieved. This can be seen in situations where bumper harv... ...cal perspectives given to the effect that a corporate-dependent system in the agri-food sector precipitated the global food crisis which is the thesis of this study. This demonstrated through empirical evidence indicating that production of grain is actually sufficient, but then gets diverted to other uses such as biofuel production and feeding animals to meet the rising consumption of meat. This places the blame squarely on the retailers who happen to be strong corporate entities resulting from capitalistic inclination. A strange phenomenon is observed where southern states in the USA are experiencing higher rates of obesity, which is still linked to corporatization of the food system. The limitations of this research center on the fact that it did not seek information from the corporate world which could perhaps give perspectives from the other side of the coin.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
A belief system is the combination of thoughts, opinions, or convictions on the most profound questions of life. What is a human being? What is the meaning and purpose of life? What is righteous behavior and what is sinful? Why is so much suffering caused and does it have any purpose? How can a greater and lasting happiness be found in life? What happens at death? What happens thereafter? Is there anything such as judgment? Will the righteous be rewarded? Such are the questions that weigh heavily upon any person seeking a deeper meaning of life, and possibly the way to salvation.They are no easy self-evident answers to these questions. One cannot come to any clear-cut conclusions to these questions using thinking and analysis, although philosophers do try to do so. The ultimate questions of life belong to the dimension of metaphysics, and have to be largely accepted as a matter of belief or faith. The articles of a believer's religious faith are not conclusions derived by ratiocinati ve, discriminating mind. Mind has little to do with them, they are more related to the heart and the soul of a person.For example, the existence of soul itself is not something one can infer from rational analysis or physical dissection. Yet the existence of soul is central to nearly every religious belief system on the earth. Logical thinking cannot make anything of such a belief. Similarly, the presence of God is something beyond the reach of human mind to comprehend. Yet, a belief in God is again the core of nearly every religious belief system. I myself follow a deeply Christian belief system that is founded upon the Glory of God and the mystery of His creation.When we enter the domain of a religious system, we have to leave the mind behind and follow the voice of the heart. I believe that we should follow a belief system not because our parents followed it or the people around us follow it, but simply because there is a resonance between the elements of that particular religiou s thinking and oneself. Of course, usually one finds this special affinity to the religious tradition one is born into, and that is the case with me too.I am a Protestant Christian and I find that the Protestants have a direct and intimate approach to religion. I am at home among Protestant Christians and particularly in my church and denomination, the Baptist Christians. Though I myself belong to the Baptist church, and have certain strong convictions concerning theological/metaphysical matters in accordance to my particular belief system, I try to regard other denominations and even faiths with an open mind. I believe that deep down, the religious impulse of men and women all over the world is the same.Further, the courage or abstractness of thought needed to allow the heart to believe in completely unseen things is also more or less the same, although I acknowledge the fact that in a majority of cases, religious belief are just a matter of custom which do not have serious implica tions in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. But when religion is taken seriously, the essential nature of divergent belief systems can be the same though the contents differ, sometimes radically as between Eastern pantheistic religions and the strictly monotheistic Judeo-Christian religion.I believe that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mystery is so great that it can perhaps equally validate widely differing religious belief systems. Let me offer a relevant example here from the world of physics: an electron can be a particle and also a wave at the same time. Common sense tells us that something cannot be a particle and a wave at the same time, surely that is impossible in the very nature of things Ã¢â¬â and yet in reality it can happen and in fact this is how things are. Similarly, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mystery can be so vast that it can accommodate two or more apparently conflicting metaphysical viewpoints.Thus, almost paradoxically, although I am strong believer in the tenets of my own faith, I do not fanatically o r arrogantly claim or even think that my denomination, my sect, my religion, is exclusively correct and all others wrong. I believe that ultimately, the mystery of God cannot be contained by any particular belief system. I also believe that more than the specific doctrines of a belief system, what is more important is the passionate intensity of the believer in God, whatever may be the name of the God. I believe in the efficacy of prayer and the total need to feel personally connected to the divinity of God.To me, that divinity is represented in the image of Jesus Christ. As everyone knows, Baptists insist that one has to fully accept Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior as a personal conscious choice, not as just a matter of course. The event of Baptism marks this choice or decision. Although all Christians follow the ceremony of Baptism, and I respect that, I personally think (and not simply because I myself am a Baptist) that such a most sacred event in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life which confirm s oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal relationship to God cannot be simply imposed on children who are not mature enough to make decisions for themselves.Making Baptism into a matter of tradition and custom, instead of being a reflection of the most deeply heart-felt conviction is trivializing it. And I am proud that I am born into a particular system of faith that recognizes this and places so much importance on the act of being Ã¢â¬Å"born again. Ã¢â¬ For me, being born again is not just a matter of belief of doctrine, but a tremendous inspiration at every step of my life. I also personally believe that being Ã¢â¬Å"born againÃ¢â¬ is not a one-time event associated with Baptism and does not end with it, in fact it only begins with it.One has to be born again and again in spirit. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in God has to be renewed, rejuvenated and reaffirmed every day, only then the stream of faith can be kept flowing instead of becoming frozen. The belief in God, after all, is not simply a matter of belief Ã¢â¬â anyone can believe anything, and it does not make much difference; what makes the difference is the living energy and intensity that goes into prayer which forms a personal connection between the soul and God. There are numerous distinctive tenets in the Baptist faith that are the result of a well-grounded biblical, theological reasoning.However, as I mentioned already, ultimately belief goes beyond reasoning, in its intensity and authenticity it even transcends the particular forms and structures it outwardly conforms to. Let me reiterate the fact that religion is a personal heart-to-heart affair between the soul and God. It is more like a love relationship than a particular type of world-view. The religious quest begins with questions such as what is the meaning of life, what happens after death and so on. A belief system provides or is supposed to provide answers for them. But how do I know that they are true, and absolutely true?In this context, people usuall y say that that is the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"beliefÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â one accepts a certain element of belief as a matter of faith rather than a demonstrable fact of knowledge. I agree to that entirely. But I would like to go a little further. To me, my particular belief system does not provide all the answers to all the questions, such as why innocent children have often to suffer so cruelly, or why millions of people are dying in Africa from hunger and disease. In a world governed by a compassionate and infinitely wise God, how can such and so many other atrocious things happen constantly and everywhere?There are no easy answers. My belief-system does not provide satisfactory answers to these questions, but my personal faith in the wisdom and power of God allays my questioning mind. There are no clear and distinct answers, but the questions themselves become amorphous and disappear in the burning intensity of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s faith. To have faith in God means to have faith that whatever is happening, is happening for certain reason, though it may not be easy for us to comprehend GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ways. To a praying heart, ultimately, the one answer it needs is found in the joy and upliftment to be found in the act of prayer.
Friday, August 16, 2019
WaÃ¢â¬â¢Nyah Tucker 11A September 24, 2012 DBQ ESSAY Question: Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by of English origin, by 1700 the region had evolved into two different societies. Why did this difference in development occur? Thesis Statement: When talking about New England and the Chesapeake region, you have to consider the differences in motives and geography. Consider economic situations (reasons for settling where they did, reasons why they came to New England in the first place). One has to think about the family development and demographics, as well as the government structure.Thought New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled with a majority of English origin. By 1700 the region had evolved into two completely different societies. When talking about New England and the Chesapeake region, you have to consider the differences in motives and geography. Consider economic situations (reasons for settling where they did, reasons why they came to New England in the first place). One has to think about the family development and demographics, as well as the government structure. All these differences helped sculpt the colonies into their own significant and distinct ways of living.The geography of the New England Colonies was not the best. The soil was very rocky. This made agriculture for the New England colonist nearly impossible to achieve. Eventually the English brought pigs, horses, sheep, and cattle to the settlements. This required pastureland so the colonists were constantly clearing forests. The New England colonists were fed up with all of the rocky land, not being able to farm and plant, they moved towards the coast. The dense forests allowed a bounty of timber which was used for building ships that could be used for various.Also, there was an abundance of fish off the coast of Newfoundland, which made the New Englanders very wealthy. The Chesapeake region however, had very fertile soil. The Atlant ic Ocean created was able to create many rivers and wetlands. This provided the Chesapeake with land that was moist where they were able to establish agriculture. The main crop being produced in this area was tobacco. There was such high demand for tobacco, it eventually cause the soil to become try old and tired. By the soil drying out it increased the need for new land.In Document B on the list of emigrant bound for New England, it is mostly family oriented. Families were coming and units. These people were mostly the Puritans who were coming to New England for religious purposes. The New England colonies were founded as examples of pure religion. The New Englanders would come to prosper through their hard work, thrift, and the quality of their commitment to God and each other. The Christian values of charity towards another man resulted in tight knit communities that embraced the idea to care for every member.John Winthrop wrote, A Model of Christian Charity, while he was aboard the Arbella on the Atlantic Ocean in 1630. In this writing he states that no matter what social class you fall under everyone must say close together and work in unison as one man. Not as many men working but coming together. Showing the affection one would give to their brother. One must make their fellow colonist conditions their own, whether it is good or bad. Laugh together, cry together, rejoice together, mourn together, work together and even suffer together. They are as Ã¢â¬Å"a city upon a hillÃ¢â¬ .Meaning that other colonies will see what they do. They will notice everything they do so they have to set an example of how to be. The colonial theocratic governments also sought to further the welfare of the populace by enforcing God's Biblical laws, thus strengthening the people's support for the government (respect of authority is required by the Bible, and respect for a government that can hang you is required by common sense). Finally, the rugged land of New England did n ot stop the growth of crops. This allowed the Chesapeake colonies to prosper on agriculture alone.Unlike the New England colonies, the Chesapeake colony of Virginia never made any gesture of being a religious settlement, except for the apparent support for the Church of England. Most of the original settlers were men Document C who had left their families behind in order to attend to the territory that was to successfully produce gold for the King and the country. Most importantly produce for the shareholders. Some of the investors in the Virginia Company quickly seized upon the idea of farming as a substitute for gold-mining. This paid for the passage of many indentured ervants and later, slaves to the New World. There were many diseases that swept through Chesapeake colonies. Life in the Chesapeake colonies was very harsh. There were diseases such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid fever. Half of the people born in Virginia and Maryland died before the age of twenty. While the oth er died by the age of forty (women) or fifty (men). There were a lot of men that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find single women to mate with in order to repopulate. There were many families being destroyed my death. The children were dying very young. The Chesapeake colonies struggled.Then native born inhabitants gained immunity to all of the diseases that were infecting the original immigrants. The New England colonies had colonial assemblies and town meetings where the colonists discussed important matters of local government. These assemblies and town meetings also had the power to tax their citizens to fund the church. Above the local government were governors. These governors were supposed to enforce all of the King's policies and answered directly to the king. Above the governors were the houses of Parliament in England.There wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really a government structure when it came down to the Chesapeake colonies. They were all about the gold and making a profit. They had slaves working in the fields when they discovered tobacco and other things. They were more about quantity and money and goods and trade. In conclusion, many things that contributed into establishing these colonies led to many more events. Since there were many slaves being worked now, there were many that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with the way they were being treated. Therefore leading to many rebellions.One of which known as BaconÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebellion which was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon. There were about a thousand Virginians rose (including former indentured servants, poor whites and poor blacks) because they resented Virginia Governor William Berkeley's friendly policies towards the Native Americans when Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements, others took matters into their own hands, attacking Native Americans, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia, and torching the capital. There was many more. Like the New York Revolt in 1712 which killed nine whites and as a result of the actions taken by the slaves, twenty-one blacks were executed and some burned at the stake over a slow fire. Or even the South Carolina Revolt. People say it was like a failed attempt of BaconÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebellion. This revolt happened in 1736. Fifty blacks tried to march along the Stono River to Spanish florida but failed and was stopped by local militia.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
In Ã¢â¬Å"Discipline and PunishmentÃ¢â¬ , Foucault focuses on the major social control institution, which is penitentiary system, or system of punishment and prevention of delinquent and deviant behavior. Andrew Jacobs in his article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Whistle-Blowers in Chinese City Sent to Mental HospitalÃ¢â¬ discusses the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle against undesirable, yet legal, actions of citizens like petitioning and seeking justice. The present paper is intended to analyze the article through the lens of FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s framework of punishment. Ã First of all, it needs to be noted that neither Foucault nor Jacobs write about the justice as the conceptual and moral foundation of the so-called law enforcement authorities. In FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, what actually underlies the entire punishment system is striving for power as the end in itself: in the Middle Ages, for instance, public executions were administered in cases of those criminals who obviously undermined the rulerÃ¢â¬â¢s power and political influence. The article by Jacobs in fact is additional evidence of this thesis: whereas the citizens do actually nothing unlawful byÃ preparing petitions, they are nevertheless placed in mental health institutions, due to the fact that they to certain degree interfere with the execution of absolute power. This also proves the fact that the modern authorities and power/ governance institutions nowadays have become so complicated and autonomous system that they begin to function for their own sake, Ã¢â¬Å"forgettingÃ¢â¬ about their initial purpose, which consisted in serving the interests of the multitude. Foucault admits that the present-day punishment is free of tortures in order to evoke in potential criminals the fear of the penalty itself, rather than the pain and physical suffering. The scholar also adds that science in technology increasingly more often serve the purposes of this system so that a number of professionals including lawyers, police officers, engineers and psychiatrists are involved into the examination and investigation. Ã In this sense, the case of Shandong Province clearly shows that relatively painless measures are used to prevent citizens from excessive petitioning ; moreover, a successful tandem of police authorities and mental health specialists increase the reliability of this practice: Ã¢â¬Å"During a 20-day stay, he said, he was lashed to a bed, forced to take pills and given injections that made him numb and woozy. According to the paper, when he told the doctor he was a petitioner, not mentally ill, the doctor said: Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care if youÃ¢â¬â¢re sick or not. As long as you are sent by the township government, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll treat you as a mental patientÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs, par.5). Thus, even health care as a social institution in general is actually an institution of social control, fully supporting and following the ambitions and interests of the existing authorities. Due to the fact that justice-seekers, as it has been noted above, act legally, they are not eligible to become prison inmates, so law enforcement agencies send them to mental hospitals. This means, the punishment and corrections system has become so vast and multifaceted that it can now achieve a number of different goals, including the goal of imposing a penalty on the individual, whose actions are not fully beneficial for the institutions of power.Ã Thus, such institutions, which serve their own needs, find strategies of curbing unfavorable behavior and select a path of minimal resistance: instead of officially declaring active petitioners as criminals (which will result in the need for reviewing and revising the entire legislation), these officials make an open statement that truth-seekers are simply mad and need special medical treatment. Thus, they even show this situation as the act of saving the society from one more mentally imbalanced citizen and preserving or improving thisÃ personÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Thus, the philosophy ostensibly underlying this practiceÃ seems noble, but it needs to be remembered that the institutions of power and social control work moistly for their own sake and attempt to expand and strengthen their influence. Foucault also dedicates a part of his work to describing the concept of discipline. In particular, the scholar asserts that discipline is one of behavioral compliance-gaining techniques, which consists in managing the distribution of individuals in space, controlling their time and clearly defining their relations with the institutions of social control. In this sense, the Chinese authorities obviously seek to introduce a new discipline and eliminate the habit of creating petitions and lawsuit against the governmental institutions, i.e. the practice ofÃ hospital confinement is intended to deter individuals from interfering with the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s course. This is actually the heart of discipline Ã¢â¬â the recognition of power, obedience and absolute acceptance of the programs and campaigns of the ruling institutions. Moreover, this out of common type of discipline allows finding supporters, who would be the social engines of the promotion and progress of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Finally, it is important to focus on the pure concept of punishment as explained by Foucault and addressed by Jacobs. Obviously, hospital incarceration includes all the components of punitive measure including control over the inmateÃ¢â¬â¢s body (i.e. the person depends on the institution in terms of the satisfaction of their basic needs); management of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s time and activities and, thirdly, modulating the penalty. In the context of the article by Jacobs, the last component means administering additional therapies, which make the person half-unconscious for days or suggesting the release from the institution in exchange for signing a refusal of the petition. Importantly, the inmate is surveilled, but cannot see all of their Ã¢â¬Å"watchersÃ¢â¬ . As one can conclude, although the incarceration in mental hospitals is not a traditional form of punishment, it is actually similar to the regular imprisonment, because of the similar concepts like panopticism, discipline, painless punishment and the execution of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s authority. Bibliography Rainbow, P. The Foucault Reader. New York: Random House, 1984. Jacobs, A. Ã¢â¬Å"Whistle-Blowers in Chinese City Sent to Mental HospitalÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
The business case you have describes a situation in a company called Applied Research Technologies. As a team, you are expected to understand the situation and present your answers to the questions below: 1. As Peter Vyas, how would you handle the expenditure request for the re-launch of the mini water oxidation system? 2. As Cynthia Jackson, would you approve the expenditure request if Vyas sent it up to you? 3. How effective has Vyas been as a front-line manager at ART? How effective has Jackson been as an ART division vice president? All the information you need is contained within the business case you have. However, if you want to use additional information you are welcome to do so. You are expected to hand in a team report that answers the questions above. You are also expected to present your results to the class. Your grade will be assessed as follows: Grade Based on Percent of Total Grade Understanding of the case Team 30% Ability to answer the questions Individual 30% Clarity of the presentation Team 20% Neatness of work Team 20% You will be assessed based on the following: Clarity of answering the questions. Cohesiveness of answers and reports. Accuracy of details and conclusions.